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Processor Architectures and History

Intel and AMD Historical, Pentium 4, AMD Opteron, Dual Core, Pentium M to Core 2, Nehalem, Sandy Bridge to Haswell, Hyper-Threading, SIMD Extensions

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Performance Overview (2017 Jul), Microarchitecture 2020 (2016 Dec),
Update Jan 2017, Update Feb 2014

Update  2016 Dec

Starting from Nehalem, I will try to provide scale Intel CPU die images. Note that in most cases, I am not scaling the raw image, but doing so in html. Also, I am assuming that the image I found online have the correct aspect ratio, which is not guaranteed. I will try to use the scale 10 pixels to 1 mm. But in some cases, the actual die dimensions are listed on line. If anyone notices errors and have the correct ratio, please advise.

Nehalem 45nm

Nehalem Nehalem-EX

Nehalem 263 mm2, 19.45 × 13.52 mm, Nehalem-EX 684mm2, 31.41 × 21.78 mm

Many years ago, max die size was 440 mm2, something to do with reticle limit, or the optics used. then it became it became possible to do 680mm2, This was about the time full frame camera sensors became much less extremely expensive, full frame is 35mm x 24mm?

Westmere 32nm

A comparison of quad-core Nehalem 45nm with 32nm dual-core Westere 81 mm2, 8.52 × 9.50mm, and the six-core Westmere EP 248 mm2, 21.55 × 11.51mm .

Nehalem   Westmere   Westmere   Westmere
Nehalem,                           Westmere 2 cores,       and Westmere EP six-cores

Westmere and Sandy Bridge 32nm

Westmere   Sandy Bridge
Westmere 6-core 248mm2 and Sandy Bridge 4-core 216mm2, 21.25 × 10.16mm (could be 20.87 × 10.35?), both 32nm

Below are Westmere-EX and Sandy Bridge EP/EN.

Westmere-EX   Sandy Bridge
Westmere-EX 10-cores 513mm2, 25.85 × 19.84 mm, and Sandy Bridge EP & EN, 8 cores, 435mm2, 22.19 × 19.61

Ivy Bridge 22nm

Ivy Bridge-10c   Ivy Bridge-15c

The 10-core 341mm2, 16.43 × 20.76 mm, and 15-core 541mm2, 25.38 × 21.32 mm. There is also a 6-core 256.5mm2, no image found.

Ivy Bridge 4c  

I believe the above left is Ivy Bridge 4-core HM-4, 133mm2, 7.656 × 17.349mm. The Ivy Bridge HE-4 is 160mm2, 8.141 × 19.361mm (not shown).

Haswell 4c  

Above is Haswell 4-core GT2 graphics, 177mm2, 8.09 × 21.89mm.

Broadwell 4c   Broadwell 4c

Above left is Broadwell 2-core GT2 graphics, 82mm2, 6.08 × 13.49mm. On the right is the 2-core with Iris graphics, listed at 133mm2.
From the original raw image aspect ratio, I calculate the dimensions to be 6.80 × 19.55 mm. I do not know why the standard graphics die is 6.08 mm and the Iris graphics die is 6.80 mm. Never mind, notice the blank space above the cores of the 2c Iris die.

Broadwell 4c

Above is the 4-core Broadwell. I cannot find die size or dimensions. In trying to match up the cores, I am guessing a die size of 172 mm2 and dimensions of 12.41 × 13.86mm.

Haswell 22nm

Haswell 8c   Haswell 18c

The 8-core 354mm2, 17.62 × 20.09 mm, cores are arrayed 4 vertical, 2 across.
and 18-core 661mm2, 31.81 × 20.78 mm,
cores arrayed 4 vertical in the first 3 columns and 6 in the last column.
There is also a 12-core 492mm2, no image found.

Broadwell 14nm

Broadwell 10c  

The 10-core 246.2mm2, 15.20 × 16.20 mm, cores are arrayed 5 vertical, 2 across.
The 15-core 306.2mm2, 18.90 × 16.20 mm, 5 vertical, 3 across.
and 24-core 456.1mm2, 25.20 × 18.10 mm, 6 vertical, 4 across.
Note the apparent blank space to the right of the second column of cores.
No image for either 15 or 24 core die.

Sky Lake 14nm

Sky Lake  

Sky Lake 4-core 122.4mm2, 13.36 × 9.16 mm.

2017 Jul
I believe this is Skylake-SP, from Mark Bohr's Technology Manufacturing Day, 3/28/2017

Sky Lake  

Cores are arrayed 5 vertical, and 6 across. The grid spots in the left and right-most colums, second row are occupied by the memory controllers instead of cores, with the buffering circuits in the narrow vertical strips at the edges.

The other two die options are 3 vertical x 4 across, net 10 cores, and 5 vertical x 4 across, net 18 cores.

The slide below might be from 3dcenter.org, but I don't read German. I will chase it down if I can.

Epyc  

 

Knights Landing 14nm, Xeon Phi 200

KnightsLanding  

Above is based on die size of 683mm2, and if image aspect ratio is correct, then dimensions are 32.2 × 21.2 mm.

 

 

 

 

All Desktops

Nehalem 263 mm2, 19.45 × 13.52 mm,
with 32nm dual-core Westere 81 mm2, 8.52 × 9.50mm,
and the six-core Westmere EP 248 mm2, 21.55 × 11.51mm

Nehalem   Westmere   Westmere  

Westmere   Sandy Bridge
Westmere 6-core 248mm2 and Sandy Bridge 4-core 216mm2, 21.25 × 10.16mm (could be 20.87 × 10.35?), both 32nm

Ivy Bridge 4c   Haswell 4c   Haswell 4c

I believe the above left is Ivy Bridge 4-core HM-4, 133mm2, 7.656 × 17.349mm. The Ivy Bridge HE-4 is 160mm2, 8.141 × 19.361mm (not shown).

In the middle is Haswell 4-core GT2 graphics, 177mm2, 8.09 × 21.89mm.

On the right is Broadwell 2-core GT2 graphics, 82mm2, 6.08 × 13.49mm

Broadwell 4c   Broadwell 4c

Above left is Broadwell 2-core GT2 graphics, 82mm2, 6.08 × 13.49mm. On the right is the 2-core with Iris graphics, listed at 133mm2.
From the original raw image aspect ratio, I calculate the dimensions to be 6.80 × 19.55 mm. I do not know why the standard graphics die is 6.08 mm and the Iris graphics die is 6.80 mm. Never mind, notice the blank space above the cores of the 2c Iris die.

Broadwell 4c

Above is the 4-core Broadwell. I cannot find die size or dimensions. In trying to match up the cores, I am guessing a die size of 172 mm2 and dimensions of 12.41 × 13.86mm.

Sky Lake  

Sky Lake 4-core 122.4mm2, 13.36 × 9.16 mm.

 

 

 

 

 

All Server with ppt diagrams

Nehalem-EX   Nehalem-EX
Nehalem-EX 684mm2, 31.41 × 21.78 mm

 

Westmere-EX  Westmere-EX
Westmere-EX 10-cores 513mm2, 25.85 × 19.84 mm,

 

  Sandy Bridge   SandyBridge-EX
Sandy Bridge EP & EN, 8 cores, 435mm2, 22.19 × 19.61

 

Ivy Bridge-10c   IvyBridge-EX
Ivy Bridge 10-core 341mm2, 16.43 × 20.76 mm,

Ivy Bridge-15c   IvyBridge-EX
and 15-core 541mm2, 25.38 × 21.32 mm.
There is also a 6-core 256.5mm2, no image found.

 

Haswell 8c   Haswell 18c

Haswell-EX   Haswell-EX
Haswell 8-core 354mm2, 17.62 × 20.09 mm,
and 18-core 661mm2, 31.81 × 20.78 mm. There is also a 12-core 492mm2, no image found.

 

Broadwell 10c   Broadwell-EX
The Broadwell 10-core 246.2mm2, 15.20 × 16.20 mm.

The 15-core 306.2mm2, 18.90 × 16.20 mm and 24-core 456.1mm2, 25.20 × 18.10 mm, no image found.

Broadwell-EX   Broadwell-EX

 

Wikichips seems to have a decent collection of details on Broadwell EP/EX and other Intel processors from Sandy Bridge forward.

 

 

Server stick diagrams

 


  Nehalem-EX   Westmere-EX
Nehalem-EX 684mm2, 31.41 × 21.78 mm, Westmere-EX 10-cores 513mm2, 25.85 × 19.84 mm,

 

  SandyBridge-EX
Sandy Bridge EP & EN, 8 cores, 435mm2, 22.19 × 19.61

 


  IvyBridge-EX   IvyBridge-EX   IvyBridge-EX
Ivy Bridge 10-core 341mm2, 16.43 × 20.76 mm, and 15-core 541mm2, 25.38 × 21.32 mm. There is also a 6-core 256.5mm2, no image found.

 

  Haswell-EX   Haswell-EX
Haswell 8-core 354mm2, 17.62 × 20.09 mm, There is also a 12-core 492mm2, no image found.

  Haswell-EX
and 18-core 661mm2, 31.81 × 20.78 mm.

 

  Broadwell-EX   Broadwell-EX   Broadwell-EX
The Broadwell 10-core 246.2mm2, 15.20 × 16.20 mm. The 15-core 306.2mm2, 18.90 × 16.20 mm and 24-core 456.1mm2, 25.20 × 18.10 mm, no image found.

 

 

Wikichips seems to have a decent collection of details on Broadwell EP/EX and other Intel processors from Sandy Bridge forward.