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Intel processor die images: desktop ,   Xeon (big die) images ,   Intel vs. AMD Opteron   Xeon w/stick diagrams,  

Turbo-Boost Alternative,   2018 Oct

Processor Architectures and History

Intel and AMD Historical, Pentium 4, AMD Opteron, Dual Core, Pentium M to Core 2, Nehalem, Sandy Bridge to Haswell, Hyper-Threading, SIMD Extensions

Other incomplete items
Performance Overview (2017 Jul), Microarchitecture 2020 (2016 Dec),  Update Jan 2017Update Feb 2014

Preliminary  

Many years ago, perhaps in the mid-1990's, max die size was 440 mm2, something to do with reticle limit, or the optics used. Then it became it became possible to do 680mm2. The Canon 1D had an APS-H sensor at 28.7 × 19mm = 548mm2 in late 2001.

The 1Ds followed in late 2002 with a full-frame sensor at 36 × 24mm = 864mm2. While expensive, it was less than extremely expensive. Note, APS-C at 23.6 × 15.7 mm = 370mm2 is relatively inexpensive. Number of whole die per 300mm wafer is 151, so raw die cost might be less than $100?

Update  2016 Dec

Starting from Nehalem, I will try to provide scale Intel CPU die images. Note that in most cases, I am not scaling the raw image, but doing so in html. Also, I am assuming that the image I found online have the correct aspect ratio, which is not guaranteed. I will try to use the scale 10 pixels to 1 mm. But in some cases, the actual die dimensions are listed on line. If anyone notices errors and have the correct ratio, please advise.

Nehalem 45nm

Nehalem Nehalem-EX

Nehalem 263 mm2, 19.45 × 13.52 mm, Nehalem-EX 684mm2, 31.41 × 21.78 mm

Nehalem is the codename for the processor architecture. The quad-core die with QPI interfaces had the codename Bloomfield. A quad-core part with PCI-E had the codenaame Lynnfield. The 8-core big die part could be called either Nehalem-EX or Beckton?

Nehalem   Lynfield
Bloomfield (QPI),       and     Lynnfield (PCI-E)

Lynnfield, above on the right, is 296 mm2, 22.01 × 13.45 mm

Wikichip has more details along with large die images of Nehalem and in general, very good coverage of the more recent Intel processors.
Wikipedia may have more information on the older Intel processors, Nehalem.

In bit-tech Intel Core i7 - Nehalem Architecture Dive - Architecture enhancements, Nehalem is cited as having 20-24 pipeline stages compared to 14 in Core 2.

Nehalem L1 is 4 cycle. L2 cache is 256K, 10-cycle access. The Nehalem-EP 8M L3 shared by 4 cores is cited as 35ns. By comparison, the 45nm Penryn L1 is 3 cycle, the 6M L2 shared by 2 cores is 15ns. The 65nm Conroe 4M shared L2 is 14ns.

Westmere 32nm

The 32nm dual-core Westmere 81 mm2, 8.52 × 9.50mm, and the six-core Westmere EP 248 mm2, 21.55 × 11.51mm .

Westmere   Westmere   Westmere
Westmere 2 cores,       and Westmere EP six-cores

Wikichip Westmere.

Westmere and Sandy Bridge 32nm

Westmere 6-core and Sandy Bridge 4-core 216mm2, 21.25 × 10.16mm (could be 20.87 × 10.35?), both 32nm.

Westmere   Sandy Bridge

Above is Sandy Bridge 4c and GT2 graphics, 12EUs. There are also 2-core versions with GT2 and GT1, 12 and 6 EUs respectively.

Wikichip Sandy Bridge. The Sandy Bridge 4-core uses a ring to connect the 4 cores, the system agent and graphics. Previously, a ring was used on the Nehalem and Westmere EX processors, but not the smaller EP? Sandy Bridge L3 is 26-31 cycles, perhaps 10-11ns?

The Pentium 4 processors had a trace cache. Nehalem had a µop loop buffer. Sandy Bridge has a µop cache, 1536 µops, 8-way (32 sets of 6?)

Below are Westmere-EX and Sandy Bridge EP/EN.

Westmere-EX   Sandy Bridge
Westmere-EX 10-cores 513mm2, 25.85 × 19.84 mm,
and Sandy Bridge EP & EN, 8 cores, 435mm2, 22.19 × 19.61

Ivy Bridge 22nm

Wikichip Ivy Bridge.

Ivy Bridge-6c   Ivy Bridge-10c   Ivy Bridge-15c

The 10-core 341mm2, 16.43×20.76 , 17.03 × 20.03mm and 15-core 541mm2, 25.38 × 21.32 mm.
There is also a 6-core 256.5mm2, no image found, 17.06 × 15.04mm

Ivy Bridge 4c  

I believe the above left is Ivy Bridge 4-core HM-4, 133mm2, 7.656 × 17.349mm. The Ivy Bridge HE-4 is 160mm2, 8.141 × 19.361mm (not shown).

Wikichip indicates the above is actually the 160mm2 part with 2x8 EU? If so, then scaled image is:

Ivy Bridge 4c  

Haswell 22nm

Wikichip Haswell,  

Haswell 4c   Haswell 4c  

Above left is Haswell 4-core GT2 graphics (2×10 EU), 177mm2, 8.09 × 21.89mm. Above right is 2-core GT3 (2×16 EU?) 181mm2, 8.39 × 21.58mm.

Haswell 8c   Haswell 18c

The 8-core 354mm2, 17.62 × 20.09 mm, cores are arrayed 4 vertical, 2 across.
and 18-core 661mm2, 31.81 × 20.78 mm,
cores arrayed 4 vertical in the first 3 columns and 6 in the last column.
There is also a 12-core 492mm2, no image found.

Broadwell 14nm

Wikichip Broadwell,  

Broadwell 4c   Broadwell 4c

Above left is Broadwell 2-core GT2 graphics, 82mm2, 6.08 × 13.49mm. On the right is the 2-core with Iris graphics, listed at 133mm2.
From the original raw image aspect ratio, I calculate the dimensions to be 6.80 × 19.55 mm. I do not know why the standard graphics die is 6.08 mm and the Iris graphics die is 6.80 mm. Never mind, notice the blank space above the cores of the 2c Iris die.

Broadwell 4c

Above is the 4-core Broadwell. I cannot find die size or dimensions. In trying to match up the cores, I am guessing a die size of 172 mm2 and dimensions of 12.41 × 13.86mm.

Broadwell 10c  

The 10-core 246.2mm2, 15.20 × 16.20 mm, cores are arrayed 5 vertical, 2 across.
The 15-core 306.2mm2, 18.90 × 16.20 mm, 5 vertical, 3 across.
and 24-core 456.1mm2, 25.20 × 18.10 mm, 6 vertical, 4 across.
Note the apparent blank space to the right of the second column of cores.
No image for either 15 or 24 core die.

Sky Lake 14nm

Wikichip Skylake,  

Sky Lake  

Sky Lake 4-core 122.4mm2, 13.36 × 9.16 mm.

2017 Jul
I believe this is Skylake-SP, from Mark Bohr's Technology Manufacturing Day, 3/28/2017

Sky Lake  

Cores are arrayed 5 vertical, and 6 across. The grid spots in the left and right-most colums, second row are occupied by the memory controllers instead of cores, with the buffering circuits in the narrow vertical strips at the edges.

The other two die options are 3 vertical x 4 across, net 10 cores, and 5 vertical x 4 across, net 18 cores.

The slide below might be from 3dcenter.org, but I don't read German. I will chase it down if I can.

Epyc  

See ISSCC 2018: Intelís Skylake-SP Mesh and Floorplan for more on Skylake SP mesh and floorplan.

Wikichip Kaby Lake,   Coffee Lake

 

Knights Landing 14nm, Xeon Phi 200

KnightsLanding  

Above is based on die size of 683mm2, and if image aspect ratio is correct, then dimensions are 32.2 × 21.2 mm.

 

 

 

 

All Desktops

Nehalem 263 mm2, 19.45 × 13.52 mm,
with 32nm dual-core Westere 81 mm2, 8.52 × 9.50mm,
and the six-core Westmere EP 248 mm2, 21.55 × 11.51mm

Nehalem   Westmere   Westmere  

Westmere   Sandy Bridge
Westmere 6-core 248mm2 and Sandy Bridge 4-core 216mm2, 21.25 × 10.16mm (could be 20.87 × 10.35?), both 32nm

Ivy Bridge 4c   Haswell 4c   Haswell 4c

I believe the above left is Ivy Bridge 4-core HM-4, 133mm2, 7.656 × 17.349mm. The Ivy Bridge HE-4 is 160mm2, 8.141 × 19.361mm (not shown).

In the middle is Haswell 4-core GT2 graphics, 177mm2, 8.09 × 21.89mm.

On the right is Broadwell 2-core GT2 graphics, 82mm2, 6.08 × 13.49mm

Broadwell 4c   Broadwell 4c

Above left is Broadwell 2-core GT2 graphics, 82mm2, 6.08 × 13.49mm. On the right is the 2-core with Iris graphics, listed at 133mm2.
From the original raw image aspect ratio, I calculate the dimensions to be 6.80 × 19.55 mm. I do not know why the standard graphics die is 6.08 mm and the Iris graphics die is 6.80 mm. Never mind, notice the blank space above the cores of the 2c Iris die.

Broadwell 4c

Above is the 4-core Broadwell. I cannot find die size or dimensions. In trying to match up the cores, I am guessing a die size of 172 mm2 and dimensions of 12.41 × 13.86mm.

Sky Lake  

Sky Lake 4-core 122.4mm2, 13.36 × 9.16 mm.