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Update  2019 Mar

I was recently provided with die images of Gallatin, the 2M L3 version. Various online sources say this is 237mm2, but the die itself suggests dimensions of 21.5 × 12.5mm for 269mm2.

Northwood is listed as 11.52 × 11.37 for 131mm2. The image below, left (and bottom) shows Northwood at 230 pixels high by 227 pixels wide. The Gallitin die photo, below, right is scaled to 230 pixels high has width 393 pixels, corresponding to dimensions 11.5 x 19.65mm.

NorthwoodGallatin 2M
Northwood Gallatin
Northwood

It would seem that the Gallatin core does not match the Northwood core. But this could be because there is the original Intel P860 130nm process and a subsequent 5% shrink, sometimes denoted as a .1 (P860.1).

Update  2018 Oct

Somewhere, Cascades - Pentium III Xeon on 0.18µm (Coppermine w/2M L2) is listed as 385mm2 corresponding to dimensions 21.7 × 17.7mm.

However, in comparing die images of Coppermine 256K L2, 80mm2, dimensions 9.82 × 8.15mm, it would appear that Cascades is actually smaller.
Nevermind, Coppermine is 106mm2.

CoppermineCascades scale A
Cascades
80mm2256.6mm2385mm2
9.82 × 8.15mm17.7 × 14.5mm21.7 × 17.7mm

From the eyeball die image comparisons, I estimate Cascades to be 256.6mm2 with dimensions 17.7 × 14.5mm.
Additional images

Coppermine_106 Cascades

 

Update  2017 Dec

Below are most of Intel server processors from Pentium 4 (Willamette) to Skylake with images scaled. I am not certain that the exact model is represented. Please contribute in fixing errors and filling in the blanks.

CodenameProcessdie sizeCacheImage Dim
Cascades180nm385 mm2
256.6?
2M L2 Cascades 21.7 × 17.7
17.7 × 14.5
Foster180nm?mm2256K L2, 1M L3 no image
Gallatin130nm269mm2512K L2, 2M L3 21.5 × 12.5
there is also a 4M version
Potomac90nm?mm28M L3 no image
Tulsa65nm435mm22x1M L2 + 16ML3 Cedar Mill
Dunnington45nm503mm2 3x3M L2 + 16M L3 Penryn
Nehalem-EX45nm684mm28x3M L3 Nehalem 31.41 × 21.78 mm
Westmere-EX32nm513mm210x3M L3 Westmere 25.85 × 19.84 mm
24.90 × 20.61 mm?
SandyBridge EP/EN32nm435mm28x2.5M L3 SandyBridge_die_6c 22.19 × 19.61
Ivy Bridge 6c22nm256.5mm210x2.5M L3 no image
Ivy Bridge 10c22nm341mm210x2.5M L3 Ivy Bridge 16.43 × 20.76 mm
Ivy Bridge 15c22nm541mm215x2.5M L3 Ivy Bridge 25.38 × 21.32 mm
Haswell 8c22nm354mm28x2.5M L3 Haswell 17.62 × 20.09 mm
Haswell 12c22nm492mm2 no image 23.9 × 20.1 mm?
Haswell 18c22nm661mm218x2.5M L3 Haswell 31.81 × 20.78 mm
Broadwell14nm246.2mm210x2.5M L3 Broadwell 15.20 × 16.20 mm
Broadwell14nm306mm215x2.5M L318.90 × 16.20 mm
Broadwell14nm456mm224x2.5M L325.20 × 18.10 mm
Skylake14nm694mm21M L2, 1.375 L3 Skylake 32.2 × 21.56 mm
Skylake14nm485mm218c Skylake 22.26 × 21.56 mm ?
Skylake14nm325mm210c ~22.26 mm × ~14.62 mm

(wikichip Skylake server),

The Broadwell 10-core 246.2mm2, cores are arrayed. The 15-core 306.2mm2, , 5 vertical, 3 across. and 24-core 456.1mm2, , 6 vertical, 4 across. Note the apparent blank space to the right of the second column of cores.

 

Itanium

McKinley, 464mm, 256K L2, 3M L3
McKinley

Madison, 6M 374mm
McKinley
Madison, 9M 432mm

Montecito 90nm, 2c, 24M, 596mm 27.72x21.5 -- 580mm, 27.7 x 21.5, 1M L2I, 256K L2D
Montecito

Tukwila, 65nm, 4c, 512K L2I, 256K L2D, 24M L3 698.75mm, 32.5x21.5
Tukwila

Poulson 32nm, 8c 32M 544mm 29.9x18.2
Poulson
same layout as Nehalem-EX, but smaller than 684mm2, 24M L3