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Update  2018 Oct

Below are most of Intel desktop processors from Pentium 4 (Willamette) to Skylake with images scaled.
Now extended to Pentium II/III and Coffee Lake?
I am not certain that the exact model is represented. Please contribute in fixing errors and filling in the blanks.

CodenameProcessdie sizeCacheImage
80486
1991
1000nm160mm2
9.57×16.7mm
Pentium Pro
P5
1993
800nm293mm2
16.7×17.6mm
Pentium Pro
P54
1994
600nm148mm2
11.8×12.5mm
Pentium Pro
P6
1995 Nov
600nm413mm2
20.3×20.3mm
256K off-die L2Pentium Pro?
256K
1995
500nm203mm2
17.1×11.8mm
256KPentium Pro?
P6
1996 ?
500nm307mm2
17.6×17.4mm?
?
Klamath
1997 May
350nm204mm2
14.9×13.7mm
512K off-die L2Klamath?
Deschutes?
1998 Jan
250nm118?mm2
10.46×11.29
512K off-die L2?
Katmai
1999 May
250nm127?mm2
10.4×12.3
512K off-die L2Katmai?
Coppermine
2000 Mar
180nm106mm2
9.38×11.3
256K L2
Tualatin
2001 Apr
130nm80mm2?512K L2
Banias
2003
130nm83mm21M L2Banias
Dothan
2004?
90nm84mm22M L2Dothan
Yonah
2006
65nm90mm22×1M L2Dothan
P4 lineP4 line
Willamette
2000 Nov
180nm217mm2256K L2Willamette
Northwood
2002 Jan
130nm131mm2512K L2Northwood
Prescott
1M 2004 Feb
2M 2005
90nm112mm2
135mm2
1M L2
2M L2
Prescott  Prescott
Cedar Mill
2006 Jan
65nm81mm22M L2Cedar Mill
Core 2 lineCore 2
Conroe
2006 Apr
65nm143mm24M L2Conroe
Penryn
2007 Nov
45nm107mm2
81mm2
6M L2
3M L2
Penryn  Penryn
Nehalem
2008 Aug
45nm263mm2
296mm2
4x2M L3
Nehalem  Lynfield
Westmere
2010 Jan
32nm6c 240mm2
2c 81mm2
6x2M L3 Westmere  Lynfield
SandyBridge
2011 Jan?
32nm216mm2
21.25×10.16mm
4x2M L3 SandyBridge
Ivy Bridge
2012 Apr?
22nm160mm2
19.52×8.20mm
4x2M L3 Ivy Bridge 4c
Haswell
2013 Jun
22nm 4+2 177mm2
21.88×8.09mm
2+3 181mm2
21.58×8.39mm
2M/c L3 Haswell  Haswell
Broadwell
2014 Oct
14nm 2+2 82mm2
13.49×6.08mm
2+3 133mm2
19.55×6.80mm
2M/c L3 Broadwell  Broadwell
Broadwell
2014 Oct
14nm 172mm2
13.86×12.41mm
4x2M L3 Broadwell
Skylake
2015 Aug
14nm4c 122.4mm2
13.31×9.19mm
2c 101.81mm2
11.08×9.19mm
2M/c L3 Skylake   Skylake
Kaby Lake
2016 Aug
14nm+126mm2
13.5×9.21mm
4x2M L3 Kaby lake
Coffee Lake
2017 Oct
14nm++149.6mm2
16.28×9.19mm
6x2M L3 Coffee lake Coffee lake
Coffee Lake refresh
2018 Oct
14nm176mm2?
?
6x2M L3 Coffee lake
Cannon lake
2018 ?
10nm??mm2? L3 Cannon lake
,

Wikichip Haswell,   Broadwell,   Skylake,   Kaby Lake,   Coffee Lake

Deschutes from Fritzchens Fritz on flickr,
Pentium III,

Additional notes:
Pentium Pro - 133MHz on 0.6 µm
150 on 0.50
166, 180 an 200 on 0.35 µm
256K L2 die on 0.50
512K L2 die on 0.35